Theories and educational practices

Scientific Committee: Massimo Baldacci, Franco Frabboni, Liliana Dozza, Berta Martini, Franca Pinto Minerva
Periodicity: march, october

Vol. 4, n. 2, october 2018

Table of Contents

The article will highlight the complex issues of peace education in a time of globalization, interdependence and multicultural societies. The source will be constituted by the fundamental contribution of don Lorenzo Milani. Starting with don Milani’s main impulses on education, the paper will also consider the key theoretical reflections on intercultural education. The purpose will be to compare both ideas and analyze intercultural elements in don Milani reflections and intervention, mainly for promoting a concept of intercultural peace education suitable for both theoretical and practical level.

In this paper the disciplinary regime of didactic and its effects is discussed. These are responsible for the compartmentalization in the studies field of Subject didactics, actually perceived as epistemological and institutional weakness. The current trend in research shows a movement towards the discovery of common core elements between the individual subject didactics. The debate on this point is interesting topic for didactic research in Italy and allows to circumscribe an area of scientific problematization and to improve the field of studies.

The Italian pedagogical debate after the Second World War presents some interesting points for the definition of the political dimension of education insofar as it outlines antithetical formative models, influenced by political, confessional, ideological visions, as well as by different histories. Yet the contrast between these currents has been useful to pedagogical knowledge, allowing it to be structured as a plural cultural area, open to different contributions, overcoming thus the granite block of the Gentile philosophical pedagogy; in context of the Cold War, the clash-confrontation between different positions has positively shifted to the public school of the nascent democracy, seriously contributing to transforming this into an open institution to the contribution of different cultural and ideological currents, without any preclusions; the dialectical confrontation of ideas has allowed an enrichment in terms of exercise of democracy, educating to mutual respect, and allowing everyone to understand the limits and contradictions of their own positions and to reflect on the reasons of the other, opening themselves to the analysis of earlier unexplored point of views.

The dealt-with-context in the first part of this paper is the one where, at present, as never before in human history, younger generations have a kind of knowledge, the technological one, about which the adult generations are not unique and total holders. Adult generations are often unable to explain its contents, instructions for use, usability and re-usability, meanings, cognitive strategies involved in managing it, communicational codes and channels, specific languages. The educational and didactical points of view face, at present, an important challenge: analysing the reasons why innovative didactical tools can foster the motivation to learn, can strengthen the perception of knowledge as a net of contents and meanings. In this paper, the impact experienced when bridging the hypertext contents is commented.

The article intends to indicate some orientation paths for the alternation between school and work, starting from the experience of internship accomplished in these years in the degree courses in Primary Education Sciences that showed how it is possible to combine knowledges, laboratory activities and practice on field, in a unitary and cohesive path, meaningful for a real interaction between theory and practice. The difficulties and problems that emerge from the compulsory introduction, in the last three years of secondary school level II, of the school-work alternation, above all concern a mode realized more on a temporal succession rather than on a logical and pedagogically forming construction.

The paper explores the concept of competence highlighting the limits and examining some possibilities of a concrete application. The passage analyzes deeply: the interpretative ambiguities, from a pedagogic point of view, and the difficulties of realization, on the didactic plan, of the construction of competence. The aim is to develop a reflection on the substantial and inalienable elements of the approach for competences, that deserve to be promoted and enhanced.

The importance that has always acquired competence in reading, which has an impact on the ability to write (and to be able to write), today requires the need to investigate the failures generated by the strategies and methods used by the school before even going to verify if the lack of acquisition does not depend on the student's typical criticisms and fragilities. The ludolinguistica offers a number of ways of working in the direction of the phono-syllabic method recognized in an indisputable way, as the most appropriate to the cognitive functions to decipher the conventional signs that universally define 'writing'.

The aim of this study is to verify the hypothesis according to which a psychomotor session conducted before an educational test (in the case of a dictation), can increase the availability of attention in pupils aged between 7 and 8 years and the quality of the result to the test. 170 pupils were involved for this purpose, who have been given two different types of intervention: a dictation test (D) and a dictation test preceded by a gym session (Ex + D). Afterwards, we proceeded to calculate the errors made in the various tests and to the statistical analysis. From the data analysis it emerged that the media of errors made in the dictations is lower and statistically significant (p < 0.0005) when a psychomotor gymnastics session precedes the dictates compared to when they are made without any intervention. In conclusion, it was observed that psychomotor activity is to be considered a good opportunity to stimulate availability of attention and improve learning performance and this urges us to say that it can become usual practice in the school environment.

Turning tragic into a show: the gradual anesthetizing of minds and consciences. Besides the spectacularization of pain, Western society, to confuse even more our children and young people, generated and signed the “biomedicalization” of human life by the mental health community, creating the cult of freedom from physical and mental suffering. Today the prevailing social model is thus to eternal youth and health, where there is no room for pain and suffering. This paper explores the possibility of using, for education about suffering and pain, mindfulness, which is expressed in his purely educational side, through the contemplative pedagogy. This approach aims to increase gradually the potential of individuals, supporting, on the one hand, a better management of attentional processes, cognitive flexibility and executive functions, and, from the other hand, the empatich connection, creativity, compassion and altruism.

The Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) is an assistive technology which can compensate the communication deficits associated with various developmental disabilities. In this paper the theoretical background of the approach is presented, with emphasis on the prototypical contributions of J. Light, and the opportunities for the Special Education of students with complex communicative needs are discussed.

Subsequently to a reflection on some critical aspects of recent reform of Italian school, the contribution analyzes the democratic character that beyond any political and educational ideology should characterize the institution school in every historical period. It describes progressive school models and analyzes the scientific principles of the Montessori pedagogical theory. In a transversal perspective to educational practices commonly used in schools, this method is considered a possible tool to form in children and teens a creative and critical thinking, democratic and cooperative. The paper describes, in particular, the secondary school reform plan designed, in the thirties of the twentieth century, by Maria Montessori and unfortunately remained unfinished. The Montessori reform intended to give to school the character of "educational community", in which the student could gain important activities, group work and professional experiences to learn principals social relationship with the outside world.

Time, together with space and teaching, is one of the dimensions Italian schools are testing to develop innovative teaching-learning practices focused on a more active students role. The aim is to go over the traditional teaching model, predominantly lecture-based. This paper focuses in particular on those practices in which time acts as an enabling factor to activate innovation. Here we present and discuss Block scheduling, Grade retention with course credits, Spaced Learning and Flipped Classroom, four practices selected from the twelve ideas for innovation composing the cultural movement Avanguardie Educative, founded in 2015 by INDIRE and twenty-two innovative italian schools. After having implemented and tested these ideas in Avanguardie Educative schools, here we describe how time dimension can trigger active and engaging teaching and learning processes.

Registrazione presso il Tribunale di Trento n. 1336 del 5/10/2007. ISSN 2421-2946. Pedagogia PIU' didattica.